Two views of progress

Italy vs England.

“Mille cose avanzano, novecentonovantanove regrediscono” vs “one step forward, two steps back” (“two steps forward, one step back” is the minority usage): in Italian you achieve breathtaking gains and suffer devastating losses, always ending slightly ahead; in English our forward motion is slight, and as another tiring day draws to a close we have slipped that little bit closer to the flames. (What is the literal translation of the original title of Lenin’s famous pamphlet?)

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  1. Lenin’s tract was originally called “One steppe forward, two steppes back” and was a powerful rejection of Russian imperialism. And Marx actually wrote “Das Kapital” in English as a panegyric to mercantilism under the title “Capital!” On both occasions, the Judeo-Masonic clique produced and disseminated radically different versions in order to discredit reformism.

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