I think that the problem here is the projection of a modern concept of Dutchness onto the past, suggesting a homogeneity of identity which was demonstrably absent. The first permanent settlers, who are generally believed to have arrived on the Nieu Nederlandt in 1624, were 30 families of Francophone Protestants who had previously fled north to Leiden to escape Catholic persecution further south. And Marieke Spee writes:
The colony as a whole was clearly not monocultural, and neither was the section of the population described as Dutch. For, while the leadership of the settlements was in the hands of speakers of C17th Dutch and other Low Franconian dialects (tree), many of the ordinary ‘Dutch’ colonists will have used quite different vernaculars, principally the Friesian and the various Low Saxon variants which predominated in the eastern half of the new state and in western parts of Germany. This will have been true of the immigrants from Gelderland cited by Ms Spee and possibly also for some of those from ‘t Gooi, where “German scum” were used to put down revolts by local farmers and introduce the new agrarian order sponsored by Van Rensselaer and his like. AJF van Laer writes that in
I’m a rank amateur and in no state to prove anything, but I’m prepared to bet the first-comer my AdSense earnings for June that at no time during the C17th did “Dutch”-speakers constitute the largest language community in Beverwijck; I suspect, in fact, that this honour belonged for most of the period to speakers of Low Saxon variants.
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Some of the recent obituaries of super-poet Willem Wilmink (1936-2003) managed to avoid mentioning his writings in Twents, despite the fact
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I once read some complete nonsense by UCD prof Clarence Major, so I do kind of wonder whether he’s got any
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How do we know that Bushâ€“for all his rhetoricâ€“is soft on pirates? Because otherwise, surely, Bill Frist would have rebirthed filibusters
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This is a translation of part of the chapter on Romance languages in Marius F Valkhoff’s 1943 study of De expansie